EGYPT and FRANCE
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The Ottoman-French relations were begun in 16th century and developed during the Tulip Period. France supported Ottoman Empire against Venice and Austria. Mahmud II extended Suleyman Iís capitulation. But, this close relationship was ruined in the 18th century.

After 1789 revolution, France became a republic. The other European countries saw this as a danger and declared war against France. However, they failed to defeat France in these wars. The French Army commanded by Napoleon defeated nearly all their enemies except United Kingdom. France was intending to keep away the British from the Mediterranean and dominate the trade roads through India. For this reason, Napoleon made an expedition to Egypt and occupied Alexandria (2nd July 1798). After Alexandria, Cairo was invaded and the Ottoman Empire declared war against France on 2nd of September in year 1798. The Ottoman Army commanded by Cezzar Ahmed Pasha defeated Napoleon on 18th March 1799. Napoleon escaped to France and the French Army withdrew from Egypt on 27th June 1801. El-Arish Treaty was signed between two sides on 25th June 1802. The Ottoman Empire took Egypt back.