Selim III was probably the most modern sultan of the Ottomans. His army Nizam-i Cedid reveals his attitude about the reformation of the empire. However, many statesmen and soldiers were planing to abolish the Nizam-i Cedid by inciting the yeniceris.

Opponents of Nizam-i Cedid led by Kabakci Mustafa revolted and killed Raif Mahmud. The Ottoman Government decided to make assembly and decide their policy about this revolt. But Grand Vizier Kose Musa Pasha claimed that the revolt was an insignificant event. Consequently, the rebels gained power.

Sultan Selim III as being so late for the repression of the revolt had to have abolished the new corps. But, the rebels continued their actions and wanted to depose the sultan and his 11 statesmen. Eventually, Sultan Selim said, “it is better to leave the Caliphate rather than to be the Caliph of such a rebellious nation” and left the throne (29th May 1807).

Selim lived in palace for one more year, and died during Alemdar Mustafa Pasha’s revolt to enthrone him again. Although his reform movements were interrupted he succeeded to base a modern state. He introduced a modern military system and he established technical schools.