First capitulation was given to the Geneose merchants, in 1352 and they had given the right to merchandise in the Ottoman territories.
In 1535, with reconciliation of the Ottoman-French relationships, France represented a draft
capitulation to Sultan Suleyman but he had refused this draft in which the
equality of two states was the basis. Moreover, an indefinite capitulation was demanded.
However, according to the Ottoman laws every privilege given should had been renovated with every
Sultan. This law was called as Ahidname (Oath Paper).
The first French
capitulation was given just before the campaign of Cyprus, in 1596. To provide an alliance
with the Protestant World, against the Catholic world and the Pope, the British were given
capitulation in 1580 and Holland took her privilege in 1612. With these caputilations, beside the
privilege of merchandising, the rights of the merchants, transit visas, judicial
status of the merchants, taxes and security were organised.
In the following centuries, with the regression of
the Ottoman Empire the capitulations served as a great burden and they turned out to be a tool of presure in the hands of the
In 1914, the Ottoman government had
abolished all the caputilations with the beginning of World War I although the Europeans had protested.