The BATTLE of CALDIRAN
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Sultan Bayezidís failure to suppress the Saffavidís more decisively caused serious disputes for power and the right of succession among his five adult sons. Selim won this throne struggle and came to throne with an ambition to restore Mehmet IIís energetic policies of conquest and in fact to achieve Mehmetís goal of establishing a world Empire.

However, when Selim came to throne the Ottoman Empire was in a difficult situation because of the Saffavidís in the East. Selim had decided to abolish them and open the way through Turkmenistan.

Selimís main goal was to unite all the Muslim-Turks. He began his campaign to Iran in the spring of 1514. The Saffavids and the Ottomans came across in Caldżran on 23rd of August 1514. The Ottoman army victoriously defeated the Saffavids. The Shah escaped and saved his life.

Selim had continued his campaign and entered Tabriz. He sent many artists and the scientist living in this city to Istanbul. After, this victory Shah Ismail lost his power and the Eastern Anatolia became completely Turkish.

On 15th September 1514, Selim left Tabriz and marched through Karabag, his aim was to spend the winter there and to conquer Iran completely in the spring. However, the condition of the army was not suitable and he went to Amasya. After the victory of Caldżran, Erzincan and Bayburt were invaded, the Castle of Kemah was captured.

In June 1515, the Dulkadirogullarż State was defeated in the Battle of Turnadag. As a result of this glory, Diyarbakir, Mardin and Bitlis were captured. Thus, Turkish unity was restored in Anatolia.