He was born in Isfahan, in 22nd February 1514. He was the son of Shah Ismail I. He was sent to Horasan after the Caldiran War. He stayed in Sebzvar and Herat. He took special education from famous scholars. He returned to Sultaniye, in 1511. He ascended the throne after his father’s death in 1524. In 1533, the Ottoman Empire went to the Irakeyn Campaign and the border line problems increased with her neighbour Iran.

The war begun between two rival neighbours. Shah Tahmasb marched through Baghdad after he had won the first war against the Uzbeks, in 1528. Zulfikar Bey thought to leave Baghdad to the Ottomans but Shah Tahmasb, defeated him and entered to Baghdad. Uzbeks organised campaigns to Horasan. Consequently, Shah Tahmasb went back to Horasan, in 1529 and he stayed there for two years. When the Ottoman danger had increased, he returned to the west. In 1533, Ottoman vizier Ibrahim Pasha came to eastern Anatolia and took the administration of the region. The Ottomans captured Bitlis Adilcevaz, Ercis, and Van between 1533 and 1534. Sultan Suleyman the Lawgiver went to Iraq and captured Baghdad. Shah Tahmasb rescued Baghdad and went to Van. Hence, Sultan Suleyman the Lawgiver went to Persia for the second time. A certain peace agreement was not signed during these events. Although there were border problems, Shah Tahmasb thought he overcame the Ottoman danger. He went to Horasan. He weakened the Uzbeks. He went to war with Georgia, in 1540-1548. In 1548, Sultan Suleyman the Lawgiver recaptured the towns in the eastern Anatolia. Tebriz surrendered to the Ottomans without any resistance. The Ottoman Sultan took Van while he returning from the war. After these losses, Shah Tahmasb plundered and attacked the towns and the villages. He went to Erzincan. But he was beware of the Ottoman forces and he went to Karabag. Shah Tahmasb continued to campaign to Georgia. In 1552, he raided the Ottoman lands. In 1553, Sultan Suleyman the Lawgiver came to Aleppo and in 1554 he entered the Iran. Two countries signed the Amasya Agreement in 1554. Shah Tahmasb did not destroy the peace until his death. He had been ill for the last two years of his reign. He died in Kazbin, in 1576. His son Haydar Mirza ascended the throne but he was killed after one day. Second son Shah Ismail II ascended the throne.


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