The CAPITULATIONS  
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As a word; “capitulation” means; the privileges given to foreign people in disadvantage of the country’s citizens. In the Ottoman history, the first capitulation was given to the French by the firman of Sultan Suleyman the Lawgiver, in 1535.

The King of France Francois I was captured by German Emperor Carlos V and the mother queen had demanded help form Sultan Suleyman with a letter. As Suleyman was planing to camping to Mohac and he thought that to help the French would be useful for advantaging form the Habsburgs. However, in the following periods, this help had turned our to be formal treaty. The capitulations are the privileges given under these circumstances. According to this; the French ships were allowed for trading in the Ottoman harbours freely. The other foreign ships were only allowed if they would under the French flag. By this way the French had the right for trading in the Ottoman seas. In addition, the Catholics living in the Ottoman territories were given some privileges. The French Consulates were given the authority to deal with the French citizen’s problems. These acts had played a very important role in the empire’s collapse.

In “1569, 1581, 1597, 1614, 1673 and 1740 the capitulations were renovated and with 1740, capitulation the French privileges were highly extended and in Istanbul even foreign post offices were opened.

With the Seurre Treaty, to Greece and Armenia some capitulations were given. Moreover, it was accepted that, all the foreign ships were equal to the Turkish ones. The capitulaitons were abolished with the Lausanna Treaty.

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